At COP23, government delegates will negotiate details regarding the implementation of the Paris Agreement of 2015. The expected outcome is a so-called "rulebook" to be approved by the next Climate Change Conference in Katowice, Poland, in late 2018. One of the most efficient, and cost-effective, solutions in reducing emissions and primary energy demand is the development of Heat Synergy Regions based on modern – meaning resource-efficient, climateresilient and low-carbon - district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. DHC can capture excess heat, which is currently being wasted, and can use it to replace fossil energy sources for heating European cities. Based on cost and resource-efficiency considerations for feasible low-carbon pathways, it is recommended that district heating should increase from today's level of 10% up to 50% by 2050.
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